Football - Soccer History
Games revolving around the kicking of a ball have been
played in many countries throughout history. According to FIFA, the "very
earliest form of the game for which there is scientific evidence was an
exercise of precisely this skilful technique dating back to the 2nd and
3rd centuries B.C. in China." In addition, the Roman games Harpastum may
be a distant ancestor of football. Various forms of football were played
in medieval Europe, though rules varied greatly by both period and location.
Whilst football has continued to be played in various forms throughout
Britain, the English public schools are widely credited with certain key
achievements in the creation of modern football (association football
and the rugby football games - rugby league and rugby union football).
The evidence suggests that during the sixteenth century English public
schools generally, and headmaster Richard Mulcaster in particular, were
instrumental in taking football away from its violent "mob" form and turning
it into an organised team sport that was beneficial to schoolboys. Therefore,
the game became institutionalised, regulated, and part of a larger, more
central tradition. Many early descriptions of football and references
to it were recorded by people who had studied at these schools, showing
they were familiar with the game. Finally, in the 19th century, teachers
and former students were the first to write down formal rules of early
modern football to enable matches to be played between schools.
The rules of football as they are codified today are effectively based on the mid-19th-century efforts to standardise the widely varying forms of football played at the public schools of England. The first ever set of football rules were written at Eton College in 1815. The Cambridge Rules were a code of football rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, which have influenced the development of Association football (also known simply as "football", or soccer) and subsequent codes.
The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge in 1848,
at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Harrow, Rugby, Winchester
and Shrewsbury schools, but they were not universally adopted. During
the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed
throughout the English-speaking world to play various forms of football.
Some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the
Sheffield Football Club (formed by former pupils from Harrow) in 1857,
which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles
Thring of Uppingham School also devised an influential set of rules.
These ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association
(The FA) in 1863 which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at
the Freemason's Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school
to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse. The Freemason's Tavern
was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which
eventually produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final
meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew
his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous
meeting, the first which allowed for the running with the ball in hand
and the second, obstructing such a run by hacking (kicking an opponent
in the shins), tripping and holding. Other English rugby clubs followed
this lead and did not join the FA but instead in 1871 formed the Rugby
Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under the charge of Ebenezer
Cobb Morley, went on to ratify the original thirteen laws of the game.
The Sheffield FA played by its own rules until the 1870s.
The laws of the game are currently determined by the International Football
Association Board (IFAB). The Board was formed in 1886 after a meeting
in Manchester of The Football Association, the Scottish Football Association,
the Football Association of Wales, and the Irish Football Association.
The world's oldest football competition is the FA Cup, which was founded
by C. W. Alcock and has been contested by English teams since 1872. The
first official international football match took place in 1872 between
Scotland and England in Glasgow, again at the instigation of C. W. Alcock.
England is home to the world's first football league, which was founded
in 1888 by Aston Villa director William McGregor. The original format
contained 12 clubs from the Midlands and the North of England. The Fédération
Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the international football
body, was formed in Paris in 1904 and declared that they would adhere
to Laws of the Game of the Football Association. The growing popularity
of the international game led to the admittance of FIFA representatives
to the International Football Association Board in 1913. The board currently
consists of four representatives from FIFA and one representative from
each of the four British associations.
Today, football is played at a professional level all over the world,
and millions of people regularly go to football stadia to follow their
favourite team, whilst billions more watch the game on television. A very
large number of people also play football at an amateur level. According
to a survey conducted by FIFA and published in the spring of 2001, over
240 million people regularly play football in more than 200 countries
in every part of the world. Its simple rules and minimal equipment requirements
have no doubt aided its spread and growth in popularity.
In many parts of the world football evokes great passions and plays an
important role in the life of individual fans, local communities, and
even nations; it is therefore often claimed to be the most popular sport
in the world. ESPN has spread the claim that the Côte d'Ivoire national
football team helped secure a truce to the nation's civil war in 2005.
By contrast, however, football is widely considered to be the final proximate
cause in the Football War in June 1969 between El Salvador and Honduras.
The sport also exacerbated tensions at the beginning of the Yugoslav wars
of the 1990s, when a Red Star Belgrade-at-Dinamo Zagreb match devolved
into rioting in March 1990.